Study Report 24

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Pali Text:
Saṅkhārā saṅkhārakkhandhoti?
Saṅkhārakkhandhaṃ ṭhapetvā avasesā saṅkhārā, na saṅkhārakkhandho. Saṅkhārakkhandho saṅkhārā ceva saṅkhārakkhandho ca.
Khandhā rūpakkhandhoti?
Rūpakkhandho khandho ceva rūpakkhandho ca. Avasesā khandhā na rūpakkhandho.

Translation:
(i) Q. Is that which is called ‘formations’ called ‘aggregate of formations’?
A. Excluding the aggregate of formations, what remains are called ‘formations’ but are not called ‘aggregate of formations’. The aggregate of formations is called both ‘formations’ and ‘aggregate of formations’.
Q. Is that which is called ‘aggregates’ called ‘aggregate of matter’?
A. The aggregate of matter is called both ‘aggregate’ and ‘aggregate of matter’. The remaining aggregates are not called ‘aggregate of matter’.

Guide:
Formations are 89 consciousness, 52 mental factors, and 28 matters. The aggregate of mental formations are 50 mental factors. The remaining formations are 89 consciousness, 2 mental factors, and 28 matters.

The remaining aggregates, which are not the aggregate of matter, are aggregate of feeling, aggregate of perception, aggregate of mental formation, and aggregate of consciousness.

Pali Text:
Saṅkhārā saṅkhārakkhandhoti?
Saṅkhārakkhandhaṃ ṭhapetvā avasesā saṅkhārā, na saṅkhārakkhandho. Saṅkhārakkhandho saṅkhārā ceva saṅkhārakkhandho ca.
Khandhā vedanākkhandhoti?
Vedanākkhandho khandho ceva vedanākkhandho ca. Avasesā khandhā na vedanākkhandho.

Translation:
(ii) Q. Is that which is called ‘formations’ called ‘aggregate of formations’?
A. Excluding the aggregate of formations, what remains are called ‘formations’ but are not called ‘aggregate of formations’. The aggregate of formations is called both ‘formations’ and ‘aggregate of formations’.
Q. Is that which is called ‘aggregates’ called ‘aggregate of feeling’?
A. The aggregate of feeling is called both ‘aggregate’ and ‘aggregate of feeling’. The remaining aggregates are not called ‘aggregate of feeling’.

Pali Text:
Saṅkhārā saṅkhārakkhandhoti?
Saṅkhārakkhandhaṃ ṭhapetvā avasesā saṅkhārā, na saṅkhārakkhandho. Saṅkhārakkhandho saṅkhārā ceva saṅkhārakkhandho ca.
Khandhā saññākkhandhoti?
Saññākkhandho khandho ceva saññākkhandho ca. Avasesā khandhā na saññākkhandho.

Translation:
(iii) Q. Is that which is called ‘formations’ called ‘aggregate of formations’?
A. Excluding the aggregate of formations, what remains are called ‘formations’ but are not called ‘aggregate of formations’. The aggregate of formations is called both ‘formations’ and ‘aggregate of formations’.
Q. Is that which is called ‘aggregates’ called ‘aggregate of perception’?
A. The aggregate of perception is called both ‘aggregate’ and ‘aggregate of perception’. The remaining aggregates are not called ‘aggregate of perception’.

Pali Text:
Saṅkhārā saṅkhārakkhandhoti?
Saṅkhārakkhandhaṃ ṭhapetvā avasesā saṅkhārā, na saṅkhārakkhandho. Saṅkhārakkhandho saṅkhārā ceva saṅkhārakkhandho ca.
Khandhā viññāṇakkhandhoti?
Viññāṇakkhandho khandho ceva viññāṇakkhandho ca. Avasesā khandhā na viññāṇakkhandho.

Translation:
(iv) Q. Is that which is called ‘formations’ called ‘aggregate of formations’?
A. Excluding the aggregate of formations, what remains are called ‘formations’ but are not called ‘aggregate of formations’. The aggregate of formations is called both ‘formations’ and ‘aggregate of formations’.
Q. Is that which is called ‘aggregates’ called ‘aggregate of consciousness’?
A. The aggregate of consciousness is called both ‘aggregate’ and ‘aggregate of consciousness’. The remaining aggregates are not called ‘aggregate of consciousness’.


1 comment:

Dhammanando at E-sangha said...

Hi Chewsadhu,

Firstly, let me note that the passage that you are translating here is from the Padasodhana ("Term-purifying") section of the Yamaka, which is concerned with defining the correct scope (i.e. the range of distributions) of various abhidhammic designations. That being so, it would be better here to translate the word 'iti' as "is called", rather than leaving it untranslated. And having done that, consistency will require us to assume an inherent but unstated 'iti' in the catechetical responses.

Secondly, the text you are using omits the word 'na' in one place where it is most definitely required.

QUOTE
Saṅkhārā saṅkhārakkhandhoti? saṅkhārakkhandhaṃ ṭhapetvā avasesā saṅkhārā saṅkhārakkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho saṅkhārā ceva saṅkhārakkhandho ca.


The Burmese and Thai versions read:

Saṅkhārā saṅkhārakkhandhoti? saṅkhārakkhandhaṃ ṭhapetvā avasesā saṅkhārā na saṅkhārakkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho saṅkhārā ceva saṅkhārakkhandho ca.

I would translate:

Are formations called 'the aggregate of formations'? Excluding the aggregate of formations, what remains are called 'formations' but are not called 'the aggregate of formations'. The aggregate of formations is called both 'formations' and 'the aggregate of formations'.

The Sinhalese reads:

Saṅkhārā saṅkhārakkhandhoti? saṅkhārakkhandhaṃ ṭhapetvā avasesā saṅkhārā saṅkhārā, na saṅkhārakkhandho, saṅkhārakkhandho saṅkhārā ceva saṅkhārakkhandho ca.

Here the translation would be:

Are formations called 'the aggregate of formations'? Excluding the aggregate of formations, the remaining formations are called 'formations' but are not called 'the aggregate of formations'. The aggregate of formations is called both 'formations' and 'the aggregate of formations'.

QUOTE
Khandhā rūpakkhandhoti? rūpakkhandho khandho ceva rūpakkhandho ca. Avasesā khandhā, na rūpakkhandho.


Are aggregates called 'the aggregate of matter'? The aggregate of matter is called both 'aggregate' and 'aggregate of matter'. The remaining aggregates are not called 'aggregate of matter'.

QUOTE
It is mental formation.


The word 'mental' is not required here. If you limit the meaning of 'saṅkhāra' to mental formations (the fourth khandha) you're going to run into problems when you come to the negative questions. For example:

na saṅkhārā na khandhoti? āmantā.

Is that which is not formations called 'not an aggregate'? Yes.

If we had translated saṅkhārā here as "mental formations", then the affirmative answer would be false, for rūpa, vedanā, saññā and viññāṇa are not called mental formations, but are (or may be) called aggregates.

QUOTE
Mental formations are 89 consciousness, 52 mental factors, and 28 matters.


And since they include the 28 rūpas they should not be translated as "mental formations".

Best wishes,
Dhammanando Bhikkhu